1. KWAN-MU TENNO (50th Emperor)
    One of the greatest Emperors of old Japan, Kwan-mu
    Tenno made many notable achievements, of which the most
    important was the removal in 794 of the Imperial capital from
    Nara which had been the capital of Emperors since 710, to
    Kyoto, thereby laying the foundation for over ten centuries
    of peace and prosperity. The Emperor died in 806, 70 years

    2. DAIGO TENNO (60th Emperor)
    Daigo Tenno was augustly known as the Saint Emperor
    of Engi, the title well deserved on account of his benevolent
    and sympathetic heart, as illustrated by the famous anecdote
    that His Majesty doffed his warm garment one wintry night
    in order to share the hardships of cold and poverty suffered
    by the poorer of his subjects on such a night. It was
    at his order that many great literary works were accomplished, such as, for instance, "Kokin Wakashu," "Nihon
    Sandai-Jitsuroku," "Engikaku," "Engishiki," etc. He died in
    980, 46 years old.

    3. GOTOBA TENNO (82nd Emperor)
    Gotoba Tenno was a valorous Emperor, who deploring
    the decline of power of Imperial Government at the hands of
    the strong military governors in Kwanto, started a campaign
    to subdue them, but being defeated by Hojo Yoshitoki, was
    compelled to close his last years in Sado, a desolate islet in
    the Japan Sea. It was at his order that the famous "Shin
    Kokin Wakashu" was compiled. He died in his tragic exile
    in 1239, 60 years old.

    4. HANAZONO TENNO (95th Emperor)
    The Emperor was proficient in learning and poetry, and
    also a zealous devotee to Buddhist religion. His piety was
    such that he converted his detached palace at Hanazono into
    Myoshin-ji temple, which remains till today. The "Fu-ga-shu"
    was a small anthology of poems, compiled by the Mikado himself. He died in 1343 in his 52nd year.

    5. GODAIGO TENNO (96th Emperor)
    Godaigo Tenno was one of the most celebrated Mikados
    having achieved the difficult enterprise which had been vainly
    attempted by Gotoba Tenno. He destroyed the Hojo family,
    had the political power restored into his own hands, and
    would have founded a prosperous Imperial regime but
    for the rebellion of Ashikaga Takauji, who, at the head of
    overwhelming military forces, succeeded in seizing the political power, and set himself up as Shogun. The Mikado fled to
    Yoshino, Yamato Province, where he established a temporary
    palace. Here he had scarcely lived three years before he died
    alamented death in 1339, in his 52nd year.

    6. GOYOZEI TENNO (107th Emperor)
    Goyozei Tenno was not only highly accomplished in poetry
    and other elegant pursuits but was a great Buddhist scholar
    He did Hideyoshi the honor, at his request, of visiting the
    latter's residence (Juraku-dai) more than once. Upon such
    a visit Hideyoshi never failed to assure his Majesty of his
    loyal allegiance to the Imperial cause. The Emperor died in
    1617, 47 years old.

    7. GO-MINO-O TENNO (108th Emperor)
    Go-mino-o Tenno was the third son of Goyozei Tenno
    and like his father, well versed in poetry, flower-arrangement
    and other refined accomplishments. Among his several literary works were " Ruidai Kisho," "Ichiji Misho," etc. He
    was especially interested in the manners and observance of
    various periods, and was responsible for a book on the annual
    observances of his own time. He died in 1680, 85 years old.

    8. GOSAI-IN TENNO (111th Emperor)
    Gosai-in Tenno was the sixth son of Go-mino-o Tenno.
    The Emperor was known to be very skillful in writing various
    forms of popular verses. He died in 1685, 49 years old.

    9. REIGEN TENNO (112th Emperor)
    Reigen Tenno was the 12th son of Go-mino-o Tenno, and
    a scholar of no mean order, being endowed with a beautiful
    hand at calligraphy. He died in 1732, 79 years old.

    10. KOKAKU TENNO (119th Emperor)
    Kokaku Tenno was the sixth son of Prince Sukehito,
    grandson of Higashiyama Tenno. He had the Imperial palace
    reconstructed after ancient models. He died in 1840, in his
    70th year.

    11. KOMEI TENNO (121st Emperor)
    Ascending the Throne in 1846, Komei Tenno died in
    1866 in his 36th year. The years of his reign synchronized
    with the most critical period in Japanese history, in which
    the Tokugawa feudal regime perished, giving way to the
    enlightened regime of Meiji. Foreign entanglements, coupled
    with internal chaos, made his reign one of supreme difficulty
    and anxiety, in which, the Emperor, however, acquitted himself splendidly, making no little contribution to the ultimate
    success of the Imperial cause.

    12. MEIJI TENNO (122nd Emperor)
    Second son of Emperor Komei, Meiji Tenno occupied the
    throne in 1867, and lived to see a whole series of monumental
    events which characterized the transition of Old Japan into
    New Japan. He took the famous "Charter Oath" in the first
    year of Meiji (1868) and in the following year accomplished
    the removal of the Imperial capital from Kyoto to Tokyo.
    Many events of epoch-making importance took place during
    his long and glorious reign until he died a universally
    lamented death in 1912, in his 61st year.
    1. SHOTOKU TAISHI (Umayadono Oji). The original owned by
    the Imperial Household.
    Son of Yomei Tenno, and Regent in the reign of Empress
    Suiko, Shotoku Taishi was regarded as the founded of Japanese Buddhism. He built many Buddhist Temples, codified
    the famous Seventeen-article Constitution and carried out
    many important schemes in the government. Besides being a
    statesman of high order, the Prince was the greatest authority
    Japan had produced on arts and crafts, but all through his
    illustrious career he was content to remain Taishi, or Crown
    Prince. He died in 621, 49 years old.

    2. DENGYO DAISHI (Saicho)
    Founder of Enryaku-ji temple on Mount Hiyei, Omi
    province, the headquarters of the Tendai sect, Dengyo Daishi
    went to China for esoteric studies in 804 and returned to
    Japan in 805, bringing back the doctrines of his sect. He
    died in 822, 56 years old.

    3. KOBO DAISHI (Kukai)
    Kobo Daishi was one of the greatest Japanese Buddhist
    saints. His real name was Kukai, Kobo Daishi being his
    posthumous title. In 804 he crossed to China, returning home
    in 806. He was founder of the Shingon sect of Buddhism,
    and the great monasteries of Koyasan in Kii province and
    Toji in Kyoto. He was undoubtedly a great scholar, being
    also a very skilled calligraphist. An incredible number of
    accomplishments were also attributed to him.

    Sanetoki was related to the great Hojo family. A lover
    of learning and of classical books, he collected a large number
    of valuable books, and laid posterity under a great debt of
    gratitude by founding the so-called "Kanazawa Library."
    Some of the old books bearing the stamp "Kanazawa-bunko"
    are still kept in the Kanazawa Library recently built on the
    old site at Kanazawa, near Yokohama. He died in 835, 62
    years old.

    An erudite Confucian scholar of early Tokugawa period.
    Fujiwara Shuku, which was his real name, began his career
    as Buddhist bonze, as all Chinese learning was then in the
    hands of Buddhist priests; later he let his hair grow and
    became the first lay Confucian scholar. Seiga was the pioneer
    of Confucian learning in the Tokugawa Government. Among
    his many disciples was a gifted scholar like Hayashi Doshun,
    and he was one of the potential forces making for the great
    revival of modern culture in Japan. He died in 1916, 59
    years old.

    Doshun was a noted Confucian scholar who enjoyed the
    personal confidence of the first Tokugawa Shogun, Iyeyasu,
    and continued in the Shogunate service till the beginning of
    the fourth Shogun's regime. His nom de plume was "Razan"
    by which he was better known among his numerous pupils.
    Most of the legal documents issued by the Shogunate and the
    State correspondence with foreign countries were written by
    him. A disciple of Fujiwara Seiga, Doshun made notable contributions towards the cultural achievement of the Tokugawa
    Shogunate. He died in 1657, 75 years old.

    Toju, son of a peasant in Omi province, he was at first
    a devoted scholar of the Shushi philosophy of Confucianism,
    but later studying the Oyomei (Wang-Yang-Ming) school,
    became the first Japanese exponent of the latter philosophy.
    He combined profound learning with great moral virtues and
    was universally revered as "the Saga of Omi." He died in
    1648, 41 years old.

    Ansai began as a Buddhist priest, but was later converted
    to Confucianism, allowing his shaved head to grow hair. He
    studied Shintoism of Yoshida school under Kikkawa Koretaru,
    and out of this double allegiance, he begot a new school of
    Shintoism styled Suika-Ryu. He died in 1682, 65 years old.

    Soko began life as a Shushi adherent, studying under
    the Government orthodox teacher, Hayashi Doshun, but later
    assailed the faults and shortcomings of the Sung doctrine for
    which he paid the penalty of being exiled from Yedo, remaining for some years a prisoner, but in fact an honoerd guest,
    in the fief of Ako, Harima province. During this happy confinement Soko was said to have given a profound impression
    of his character and learning to the retainers of Ako. After
    his "crime" was pardoned, Soko returned to Yedo and opened
    a private school, teaching military science to numerous pupils.
    He died in 1682, 64 years.

    Banzan began by studying the Shushi philosophy, but
    later became a pupil of Nakae Toju under whom he learned
    the Wang-Yang-Ming philosophy. He served Ikeda Mitsumasa, the famous Lord of Okayama, Bizen province, both as
    instructor and administrative adviser. Many imporant
    schemes, especially economic and educational, were carried out
    through his advice. He was a scholar-statesman, insetad of
    a mere schoolman of the bookworm type, and had an astonishingly numerous following of zealous emulators. In his later
    years he visited Kyoto and taught the court nobles, for which
    he incurred the wrath of the Yedo authorities and was
    banished to Koga, Shimosa province. He died in exile in 1697,
    73 years old. At first a mere provincial scholar, Banzan rose
    in the maturity of his years to be a scholar of nation-wide

    One of the nearest relatives of the Shogun, or the representative of one of the so-called "Three Honorable Houses,"
    Mitsukuni, the Lord of Mito, Hitachi prvoince, was a munificent patron of learning. Under his patronage the celebrated
    historical work "Dai Nihon-shi" (Great History of Japan)
    was commenced in 1660. In the prosecution of this great
    work he set aside a sum representing one third of his
    annual revenue, and combed the whole empire for learned
    persons qualified for the work. Only a part of the work
    was finished in his own lifetime. After his death in 1715
    the definite title of "Dai Nihon-shi" was chosen, and in
    1810, in the days of the eleventh Shogun, Iyenari, one
    hundred volumes of the book were completed, which
    were dedicated to the Mikado, Kokaku Tenno, Kyoto. It
    was only in 1905 that the last finishing touches were given
    to the complete series. Mitsukuni's noble example had served
    to cause a revival of national learning-study of religion, arts,
    literature, etc.-which, though indirectly, served to create a
    loyal feeling for the Mikado and ultimately led to the downfall of the Tokugawa regime. Besides this noble history,
    many other meritorious services, especially in the realm of
    culture, were ascribed o Mitsukuni, and he died in 1701, 78
    years old.

    Keichu was a versatile priest covering the extensive fields
    of Buddhist literature as well as Chinese and Japanese classics,
    especially learned in the national literature. His "ManyoshuDaishoki" is rgarded as an authoritative commentary on this
    difficult anthology. He was a pioneer in the 18th century
    revival of national learning. He died in 1701, 70 years old.

    13. ITO JINSAI
    A great Confucian scholar, Jinsai went the course taken
    by many other scholars, that is, he began as a Shushi advocate,
    but came in the end to find fault with the Sung philosophy
    as being opposed to the original truths of Confucius. He
    opened a school in Kyoto to which flocked numerous pupils
    from all parts of the Empire. Many learned books are
    ascribed to him. He died in 1705, 79 years old.

    Takakazu served the Tokugawa government as financial
    inspector, and was promoted to the head of a bureau in charge
    of its household economy. He early displayed a genius for
    mathematical learning, and cultivated a new field in the science
    of numbers hitherto unknown, which he called by the name
    of Seki-Ryu. He died in 1755, 67 years old.

    "Ekken" was his nom de plume, his real name being
    Kaibara Atsunobu. He studied under Yamazaki Ansai and
    Kinoshita Jun-an and was a great Confucian scholar, and a
    master of Japanese literature. He had for a time served
    Lord Kuroda, the daimyo of Chikuzen, as Chinese teacher.
    He wrote many books on moral subjects, one of his most
    famous works being "On-na Daigaku," ("Great Learning for
    Women"), an ethical book treating of women's duties and
    their place in the universe, etc. He was far from academic,
    most of his talks and lectures being fit for the instruction
    of the populace rather than the scholastic. He died in 1714,
    85 years old.

    Monzaemon began life as Buddhist priest, being probably
    of that herd of impecunious, masterless gentry, so numerous
    at the time, but later renounced priesthood to serve the household of Ichijo (a distinguished court noble). He was versed
    in old customs and popular usages, and took to writing comedies and dramas for the stage, therein displaying a talent,
    unsurpassed by his contemporaries. More than eighty
    dramatic works are attributed to his pen. He is often styled
    as the "Shakespeare of Japan." He died in 1724, 72 years old.

    A man of profound learning and commanding character,
    Hakuseki-an outstanding intellectual force of his timesserved the two Shoguns, Iyenobu and Iyetsugu, not merely
    as instructor and adviser but as a close inspirer of the policy
    of the Shogunate Government. He published several important works on history, thereby marking a new epoch in the
    methods of historical research in Japan. Many of his
    advices had been crystalized into national policy. Among his
    numerous works of great merit "Sairan Igen," and "Seiyo
    Kibun" (both books treating of European affairs) may be
    regarded as evidence that he was one of the earliest Japanese
    scholars to acquire knowledge of Occidental affairs. He died
    in 1725, 69 years old.

    18. OGYU SORAI
    A great Chinese scholar, Sorai began as a student of
    Sung philosophy, but grew to feel a fascination for the grand
    original and became an advocate of what he called the learning of ancient words. Indeed Sorai upheld the view that in
    order to study the doctrines of Confucius one must go to the
    contemporaries of the sage and that all the numerous commentators of later generations, especially after the former
    Han period (206 B.C.-155 B.C.), were less than worth nothing.
    An advocate of the study of the grand original, he naturally
    attached no importance to the works of the latter-day Japanese Confucion commentators and he was mistakenly supposed
    to have been blind worshipper of the land of Confucius and a
    despiser of his own country. He died in 1728, 62 years old.

    19. MURO KYUSO
    A famous scholar and lecturer on Chinese classics, Kyuso
    was a conscientious exponent of Sung Confucianism. He
    was in the service of Yoshimune, the eighth Shogun of the
    Tokugawa regime, and a staunch enemy of the "heresies." A
    well-known episode about his life was the publication of
    "Gijinroku," (Records of the Righteous Men) in which he
    extolled the knightly virtues of the "Forty Seven Ronin." He
    died in 1734, 77 years old.

    Mabuchi was a pupil for a while of Kada Azumamaro, a
    great authority on "national learning," which consisted in
    the study of Japanese poetry and literature, as against Chinese classics and philosophy, the latter being in great vogue at
    the time. Subsequently he was honored as one of the four
    brilliant stars in the realm of Japanese literature and Shintoism. He had many illustrious pupils, one of them being
    Moto-ori Norinaga. He died in 1769, 73 years old.

    21. AOKI KONYO
    Konyo studied under Togai, son of Ito Jinsai, and was
    appointed librarian in the Tokugawa Government. He also
    studied Dutch, and was regarded as inspirer of the revival of
    Dutch learning. He encouraged the cultivation of the sweet
    potato, which he imported from Luchoo, for which he earned
    the famous sobriquet of "Kansho Sensei," (Sweet-PotatoMaster). He died in 1769, 72 years old.

    By far the most brilliant luminary in the firmaments of
    national letters, Norinaga derived his inspiration from his
    teacher, Kamo Mabuchi, especially in the study of ancient
    literature of Japan, as represented by such works as Kojiki
    and Manyoshu. In 1764 he started to write his monumental
    "Kojikiden" (commentary on the Kojiki), bringing it to completion in 1796. Not only the first authority on the Kojiki
    and Manyoshu, Norinaga perfected nearly all the systems
    of study coming under the category of "national learning,"
    comprising the Japanese classics, poetry, language as well as
    Shintoism. He was a fierce nationalist in letters, and an
    uncompromizing enemy of all foreign influences, especially the
    Chinese. Though he was the profoundest of scholars in
    "national learning," Norinaga will ever be venerated in the
    annals of Japanese culture as a most conscientious student of
    Japanese history. He died in 1801, 72 years old.

    23. JI-UN SONJA
    He was the founder of the orthodox canons of Shingon
    sect of Buddhism. Grieved at the decadence of orthodoxy, he
    made it his sacred duty to repair it. His profound learning
    no less than his exemplary practices in religion attracted to
    him a large following. He gave his mind also to the study
    of Shintoism, and was a notable scholar of Sanskrit language,
    being the author of "Bongaku Shinryo," consisting of a
    thousand books." He died in 1804, 87 years old.

    One of the "three great scholars of Kansei era," he was
    a distinguished exponent of the Shushi philosophy. In 1788
    he was appointed professor of the Shohei-Gakumonjo (Government College), Yedo, and was responsible for the great reformation of the scholastic system. The famous "veto of
    heretic learning," carried out in his time was attributed to
    his suggestions. He died in 1807, 74 years old.

    Physician by profession, Genpaku early devoted himself
    to the study of Dutch, wrote books on anatomy and other
    medical subjects, said to be the first Japanese translations
    from Dutch. He was the first Japanese medical man to make
    an anatomical dissection of the human body, under the guidance of the foreign medical text book he had mastered. Many
    other useful books are attributed to him. He died in 1817, 85
    years old.

    The most learned blindman Japan had ever produced,
    Hoki-no-ichi was gifted with a marvellous memory and an
    irrepressible literary curiosity, and was able to accomplish
    amazing literary enterprises. Obtaining the Government's
    permission to run a private school for teaching Japanese
    literature, he had numerous pupils. At the same time he
    worked incessantly at the compilation of olden books. The
    "Gunsho Ruiju" (Miscellaneous Books Classified and Annotated) and the "Zoku Gunsho Ruiji" (the continuation of
    the same work) were among his most notable achievements;
    they contained 3,373 varieties of books, consisting of 1,530
    volumes-invaluable contributions to the study of Japanese
    literature and history. He died in 1821, 72 years old.

    Lord of Shirakawa, Mutsu province, Sadanobu displayed
    remarkable administrative ability in the government of his
    own fief. When later he was appointed Roju, member of the
    Cabinet of the Tokugawa Government, he carried out a series
    of notable reforms, and made the administration of the Shogun Iyenari one to be highly commended then and thereafter,
    Besides his capacities in politics and administration, Sadanobu possessed great literary gifts, being the author of "Kagetsu Soshi," (a literary miscellany) "Shuko-Jusshu" (Collection
    of Ten Old Varieties) and other famous books. He was
    popularly known by his nom de plume, "Shirakawa Rakuo."
    He died in 1829, 67 years old.

    28. RAI SANYO
    A most pronounced Imperialist among the literary men of
    his time, Sanyo by his famous works, "Nihon Gaishi," and
    "Nihon Seiki,' contributed much in moulding the opinions
    of those who carried out the Restoration of the Imperial
    regime in 1868. He was at once a poet in the Chinese style, a
    traveller, a historian, and above all a zealous advocate of
    loyalty to the Mikado at a time when the military regency of
    Tokugawa was all in all of Japan's government. A single calligraphic scroll containing his own poem, written by himself,
    is known to have been sold for \70,000. He died in 1832, 53
    years old.

    A famous scholar and an exponent of the "research"
    school of Chinese classics, Ekisai was also devoted to the
    study of institutional and antiquarian lore. Among his many
    useful works may be counted such books as "Honcho Doryo
    Ken Ko Ko," (A study of Japanese Weights and Measures)
    and "Senchu Wamyo Ruiji Sho," (Extracts of Notes on Japanese names), etc. He died in 1835, 61 years old.

    One of the distinguished disciples of Motor-ori Norinaga,
    Atsutane was a hot-blooded Shinto enthusiast who made it
    a point to study "the ways of the gods as they are," and
    among his works are such notable productions as "Koshicho,"
    and "Koshiden," both being commentaries on the ancient histroy. He died in 1843, 68 years old.

    Bakin was one of the greatest novelists of the Tokugawa
    period. There is something amazing in his infinite capacity
    for work and the prolificness of his muse. The most famous
    production of his versatile pen was the "Hakkenden," running
    into 106 volumes. There are other gargantuan romances
    among his books, numbering no less than 250 works. He died
    in 1848, 82 years old.

    32. SATO ISSAI
    A famous Confucian scholar in the service of the Tokugawa government, Issai was deeply versed in the venerable
    Chinese classic, "the Book of Change," treating of the fundamental theories of government, often used as a text-book for
    the divination of human fortunes. This portrait was painted
    by Watanabe Kazan, the famous artist-patriot of the last
    century. Issai died in 1859, 88 yeras old.

    33. NIIJIMA JO (Copied from his photograph)
    He studied Dutch when young, and later studied English.
    In 1864 he went to the United States and entered the Amherst
    College, Mass., and leaving the Andover Seminary with the
    degree of B.D., returned to Japan. In 1875 he founded the
    Doshisha School, the forerunner of the present Doshisha University, at Kyoto, and devoted himself to the education of
    young Japan and to Chrisitan propaganda. In 1889 he received the degree of LL.D. from the Amherst College. Niijima
    is regarded as one of the greatest educators modern Japan
    Christian teachers has produced. He died in 1890, 47 years

    One of the greatest educators and champions of progressive modernism in the Meiji period. A survival of the preRestoration Japan, Yukichi had the foresight to see the new
    course of Western civilization his country should take, and
    put himself at the van of progress in the modernization of
    Japan after Europe an models. He covered wide fields of
    activity from education to social work, being the founder of
    the present Keio University and the Jiji Shimpo (a daily
    newspaper) and many other social and educational institutions.
    He also wrote many books and articles for the edification of
    his countrymen, leaving a wide-spread influence over the
    people of his generation. Proud to remain a "plebeian educator" all his life, the great democratic teacher died in 1901.
    68 years old.
    Painted in colors on silk.
    One scroll. Picture, 84 cm by 38.4 cm. Mounted, 169 cm
    by 50.5 cm.
    Tenma-no-Tenjin is the posthumous title of the deified
    form of Sugawara Michizane, the famous Minister of the
    Imperial Government in the 10th century, who was apotheosized as the patron deity of learning and poetry. His memory
    is especially endeared to the Japanese people by his loyal
    devotion to the Emperor. This was painted probably in the
    latter part of the 15th century.
    Depicted as the patron saint of poetry. Painted in colors
    on silk. One scroll. Picture and "San" (a eulogy in verse),
    84 cm by 55 cm. Mounted, 165 cm by 65 cm.
    The picture is accompanied with two letters. It was
    painted for the purpose of being worshipped, being a deified
    representation of Hitomaro, the greatest Manyoshu poet of
    ancient Japan. The picture was the work of Sonyo, and the
    eulogy that of Minamoto Tadasane. Evidently a product of
    the beginning of Tokugawa period (early 17th century).
    One statue.
    Height, 37.8 cm. Size of the dias on which the carved figure
    is seated, 30.3 cm by 20.5 cm.
    It would seem that this figure was used as an idol or an
    object of worship on the occasion of "Kokin Denju" (teaching in Kokinshu), etc.
    One scroll.
    The poems by eight distinguished personages mentioned below were written between 1691 and 1693, while the
    pictures were the work of an artist in Kyoto, named Yamamoto Soken. The following are the names of the poets, and
    the themes of the pictorial representations.

    1. "A Bright Dawn at Awazu."
    By Konoe Motohiro (Regent and Prime Minister).

    2. "The Sunset Glow at Seta."
    By Prince Nyudo Soncho.

    3. "The Evening Snow on Mt. Hira."
    By Kujo Sukesane (Sadaijin).

    4. "The Evening Bell of Mii Temple."
    By Shimizudani Sanenari (Gon Dainagon).

    5. "Wild-Geese Alighting at Katata Shore."
    By Konoye Iyehiro (Naidaijin).

    6. "Junks Sailing Homeward to Yabase."
    By Nijo Tsunahira (Dainagon).

    7. "Rain by Night at Karasaki."
    By Ichijo Fuyutsugu (ex-Regent and Udaijin).

    8. "The Autumnal Moon, as seen from Ishiyama Temple."
    By Takatsukasa Kanehiro (Sadaijin).
    Done on paper and in colors. One scroll. 26 cm by 452 cm.
    This is a pictorial scroll bearing the pictures of scenes of
    snow, moon and flower, as suggested by the texts in the famous
    book "Tsurezuregusa" of Urabe Kenko. The calligraphic parts
    of the scroll were the work of Kitamura Kigin, famous
    scholar of Japanese classics in the service of Poetry Bureau
    of the Tokugawa government, done when he was 76 years old;
    while the pictures were painted by Sumiyoshi Gukei, famous
    representative of the Sumiyoshi school of painters.
    Painted in colors on paper. One scroll. 27.5 cm by 1185 cm.
    The scroll contains a picture of the festive procession
    seen at the great festival of the Toshogu Shrine, a production
    probably of the latter Tokugawa period (mid-19th century).