November 24, 1644 – October 27, 1646
Until November 29, 1645 the diary was kept by Pieter Antonisz. Overtwater, and after that by Reinier van Tzum. As these diaries are relatively short, they have been collected in the same volume.
Diary of Pieter Antonisz. Overtwater
Visit to the Shogun’s Court
Overwater arrived in Japan from Taiwan on June 24, 1642 and acted as chief factor until November 8, 1643. Upon expiration of his term, he returned to Taiwan but was reappointed and resumed his position as from November 14, 1644. He started his diary ten days later.
Overtwater left Nagasaki on December 1 (p. 5) and arrived in Edo on January 4 1645. He met with the Ômetsuke Inoue Masashige at his mansion on January 8, and answered many questions about the strength of the Dutch, the Portuguese and the Spanish in the East Indies. He was also asked about the Dutchmen who arrived in Nanbu in 1643. Overwater tried to ask if permission might be given to establish a trading entrepot in Nanbu for trade with Tartary but this was refused. (pp. 11-13)
The audience with the shogun took place on January 25. The Senior Councilors made sure that the Dutch were aware that the release of the men from the Breskens constituted a tremendous favor from the bakufu.
Events in Nagasaki
In November 1644, Christians had been discovered on a Chinese junk, and on March 29, 1645, an etching of the Annunciation was discovered. On this etching was a phrase in Dutch praising the Virgin Mary. When asked about this, the chief factor explained that it must have been made by the Flemish, who were enemies of the Dutch. While Overtwater was away in Edo, 12 junks belonging mainly to Ikkan arrived in Nagasaki, and the market price of silks declined considerably.
Arrival of Dutch ships and trade
Meerman (fluyt) arrived 22 August 1645 from Batavia via Taiwan
Swarten Beer (fluyt) arrived 23 August 1645 from Tonkin
Lillo (yacht) arrived 1 September 1645 from Taiwan
Hillegaersbergh (fluyt) arrived 3 September 1645 from Batavia via Tonkin
Gulde Gans (fluyt) arrived 4 September 1645 from Tonkin via Taiwan
Leeuwerick (yacht) arrived 9 September 1645 from Taiwan
Henriëtte Louyse (ship) arrived 29 September 1645 from Batavia via Siam
Achtekercke (yacht) arrived 29 September 1645 from Taiwan
Zalm (fluyt) arrived 11 October 1645 from Taiwan via Pescadores
On September 6, the chief factor requested that Nagasaki bugyô order that the pancado prices might be set, but these negotiations were postponed because Chinese ships were still arriving in Nagasaki. (pp. 61-62) On September 18, for the first time in fifty years, a fierce typhoon struck Nagasaki, causing heavy damage to the city as well as to Deshima. Negotiations for pancado prices started on September 19 and prices were agreed on the next day. On November 30, Overtwater left for Taiwan.
Diary of Renier van Tzum
Visit to the Shogun’s Court
Renier van Tzum had acted as chief factor in Siam from 1641 to 1644. He arrived in Nagasaki on September 29 1645 and assumed his position from November 30. He handed over the factory to his successor, Verstegen, on October 7, 1646.
Van Tzum departed from Nagasaki on December 31 and reached Edo on February 7. (p. 119) On February 12 he met with Inoue Masashige. Their discussion centered on the Nanbu affair of 1643. While in Edo, Van Tzum was asked if he had come to Edo with gifts from the East India Company to thank the shogun for the release of the Dutch prisoners or if he had come to pay his respects in the usual manner. Van Tzum answered that he had come to do both, but this answer did not satisfy the bakufu. On March 8, Inoue informed van Tzum that the Dutch did not appear to adequately value the release of the Dutch prisoners.
Events in Nagasaki
Upon his return to Nagasaki, the chief factor was informed by the interpreters that Nanking had been occupied by the Ch’ing and that Ikkan had sent a request for military support to the bakufu. Two junks arrived in Nagasaki from Nanking. The crew members of these junks had been forced to wear pigtails. (p. 141) The bakufu prohibited any dealings with ships from Nanking.
Arrival of Dutch Ships and Trade
Gulde Gans (fluyt) arrived 28 July 1646 from Taiwan
Coninck van Polen (fluyt) arrived 14 August 1646 from Batavia via Siam
Berkhout (fluyt) arrived 13 August 1646 from Batavia via Siam
Zalm (fluyt) arrived 28 August 1646 from Batavia via Taiwan.
Hillegaersbergh (fluyt) arrived 3 September 1646 from Tonkin via Taiwan
Swarten Beer (fluyt) arrived 3 September 1646 from Tonkin
Zeerob (yacht) arrived 3 September 1646 from Batavia via Taiwan
Meerman (fluyt) arrived 13 September 1646 from Taiwan
Overschie (fluyt) arrived 19 October 1646 from Taiwan
The chief factor heard from the captain of the Berkhout that Portugal wished to reopen trade with Japan and that an embassy from Goa had been sent. (pp. 144-145) The factor ordered the interpreters to inform the Nagasaki bugyô of this. Pancado prices were negotiated on September 12, and a decision was reached to set lower prices than the year before. (pp. 155-157) Van Tzum left Japan on October 28.
Texts for Transcription
The original manuscripts for this transcription are preserved at the Nationaal Archief. They are found in both the Archief Nederlandse Factorij Japan (NFJ) and the Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie Archief (VOC). Previously they were all classified under one section, the Koloniaal Archief (KA). The basic text for this transcription is:
Daghregister des Comptoirs Nangasacky in Japan, beginnende 24 november  ende eyndight 27 October anno 1646
NFJ 59 (KA 11687)
A microfilm copy of the manuscript is also available in the Historiographical Institute at the University of Tokyo (6998-1-4-3, 7598-2-5)
The above text has been fully collated by the editors with other manuscript copies, namely VOC 1156 (KA 1059) and VOC 1151 (KA 1062).
Eight documents are appended for the sake of reference. These include letters addressed to Overtwater, extracts from resolutions taken by the council of the factory at Nagasaki, instructions for Van Tzum and letters addressed to Van Tzum.
A comprehensive index is provided for this volume.