October 28, 1646 - October 10, 1647
This volume of the diary was kept by Willem Verstegen. Verstegen arrived in Hirado in 1629, and was stationed in Nagasaki from 1634. After 1640, he worked in Batavia as a Secretary to the Council of Justice before returning to Japan on August 28 1646 as the new chief factor.
Visit to the Shogun's Court
Verstegen left Nagasaki for Edo on December 3 1646. Among the gifts for the shoguns were two camels, one civet cat, one cassowary, two cockatoos, a large perspective case, and several kinds of medicine. Verstegen’s account of his journey to Edo is extremely detailed, mentioning place names along the way, describing the scenery, and reporting on what he saw and heard.
After considerable trouble with his live cargo, Verstegen finally arrived in Edo on December 30. His audience with the shogun, Tokugawa Iemitsu and his successor Iestuna took place on January 3, 1647. Verstegen describes in detail both the outside and inside of Edo castle, as well as the mansions of various high officials. (pp. 75-86)
Verstegen was interviewed on several occasions by the ômetsuke, Inoue Masashige, and other high officials. He was asked about the relations of the Dutch with the Portuguese, the war with the Spanish, the position, name and lifestyle of the Lord of Holland and so on.
At the same time, the topic of the release of the ten Dutchmen from the Breskens, who had been arrested in 1643 after entering a port in the Nanbu domain, continued to remain important. Verstegen presented a number of requests to Inoue but these were not acted upon. The Dutch eventually departed from Edo on January 23 1647.Index
Events in Nagasaki
In China, the strength of the Ch’ing increased daily. Nanking fell in 1646, and junks from areas under the control of the Ch’ing started to come to Japan. As the bakufu had prohibited direct dealings with the Ch’ing, some Chinese merchants attempted to trade with the Dutch. In December 1646, the bakufu allowed trade with the Chinese, including those territories under the control of the Ch’ing. From the end of 1646, acting on warnings that the war raging in China might spill over to Japan, the bakufu strengthened its coastal defenses.
The Arrival of a Portuguese Embassy
On July 26, 1647 two ships were spotted off Nagasaki. These ships carried a Portuguese embassy intent on reopening trade with Japan. On July 28, the Portuguese vessels were towed into Nagasaki. (pp. 169-170) On August 29, Inoue Masashige informed the embassy that they would be spared, but that “in reality the embassy had transgressed against the shogun’s order and therefore merited to be put to death, because their Christian beliefs continue to be more and more disliked here in this country.” (p. 198) On September 4, the Portuguese ships left Japan.
Arrival of Dutch Ships and Trade
Witte Paard (fluyt), arrived 10 July 1647 from Batavia via Taiwan
Berkhout (fluyt) arrived 8 August 1647 from Batavia via Siam
Kampen (fluyt) arrived 8 August 1647 from Siam
Jonker (fluyt) arrived 13 August 1647 from Batavia via Siam
Jonge Prins (yacht) arrived 29 August 1647 from Batavia via Taiwan
Swarte Beer (fluyt) arrived 4 September 1647 from Tonkin
Hillegersberg (fluyt) arrived 29 September 1647 from Taiwan
On September 29, Inoue issued several orders to the Dutch. These included instructions that the bakufu did not approve the 10-year truce signed between the Dutch and the Portuguese. The Governor-General was also instructed to send a special envoy to thank the shogun for sparing the lives of the Dutch ships that arrived in Nanbu.
Texts for Transcription
The original manuscripts for this transcription are preserved at the Nationaal Archief. They are found in both the Archief Nederlandse Factorij Japan (NFJ) and the Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie Archief (VOC). Previously they were all classified under one section, the Koloniaal Archief (KA). The basic text for this transcription is:
Japans Daghregister sedert 28 October 1646 tot 10 October 1647
NFJ 60 (KA 11687)
A microfilm copy of the manuscript is also available in the Historiographical Institute at the University of Tokyo (6998-1-4-7, 7598-2-7~8)
The above text has been fully collated by the editors with other manuscript copies, namely VOC 1165 (KA 1065).
A comprehensive index is provided for this volume