This volume contains the official diaries kept by the chief factors of the Dutch East India Company factory at Nagasaki between 3 November, 1647 and 5 November, 1649.  Until 8 December, 1648, the author was Frederik Coyet.  Coyet was later succeeded by Dirk Snoek.  For both men, this was their first experience of Japan.  As both of these diaries are relatively short, they have been included in one volume.
The Diary of Frederik Coyet

The Visit to the Shogun’s Court

Coyet was a Swede, who was born in Stockholm.  He arrived in Batavia as an employee of the Dutch East India Company in 1643 and served there until 1647, when he was commissioned as chief factor and traveled to Japan. The Dutch arrived in Edo on 12 December, where they were informed that their audience was planned for the 24th.  The chief factor continued his preparations as usual until the day before the scheduled audience.  However, on the morning of 24 December, the chief factor was summoned to the residence of ômetsuke Inoue Masashige(p.10).  He was told that the Dutch had incurred the displeasure of the shogun and some high officials because a Portuguese embassy, which arrived in Japan in July of that year, stated that they had received assistance from the Dutch in Batavia (see vol. X).   Coyet was now informed that the audience was postponed.  

Finally, on 16 January Coyet was summoned to Inoue’s residence (p.19), where he was told by the Nagasaki-bugyô Baba Toshishige, who was stationed in Edo at that time, that permission for an audience had been refused.  Baba suggested two reasons for this decision: first, that no ambassador had been sent to express gratitude to the shogun for the release of the crew of the Breskens, which had been captured when the vessel entered the harbor of Nanbu in 1643, and, second, that the Dutch in Batavia had lent a helmsman and some sailors to a Portuguese embassy on its way to Japan. Without having delivered their gifts, the company departed from Edo.

Events in Nagasaki

On 23 February, Coyet gave a report to the Nagasaki-bugyô, Yamazaki.  From their conversation, it became clear that the primary reason why an audience was denied was because an ambassador had not been sent to express gratitude to the shogun.  It can therefore be conjectured that the assistance given by the Dutch to the Portuguese was simply a pretext.  On 12 July, Coyet heard from an apostate priest, Sawano Chûan, that the primary reason for the shogun’s displeasure was that no embassy had come to express gratitude (p.36).  
The Arrival of the Dutch Ships and Trade 
The following six Dutch ships arrived at Nagasaki in 1648:

Berkhout (fluyt)	arrived 04/08/1648 from Batavia via Siam	
Gekroonde Liefde (fluyt) arrived 04/08/1648 from Batavia via Siam	
Kampen(fluyt), arrived 14/09/1648 from Tonkin	
Witte Valk(fluyt) arrived 14/09/1648 from Tonkin via Taiwan
Koe(fluyt), arrived 18/09/1648 from Batavia via Taiwan
Patiëntia(fluyt), 18/09/1648 from Batavia via Taiwan

As a result of the war in China, only a small number of junks entered Nagasaki harbor this year.  The first junk arrived on 31 July from Cambodia (p.37).  This vessel conveyed the news that a junk, which departed last year from Nagasaki en route to Cambodia, had been captured by a Dutch ship.  The residents of Nagasaki pleaded their case with regard to this matter before the ômetsuke, who was in Nagasaki, but their suit was rejected (p.49).  

Based on a letter brought by Koe from Batavia (Appendix I), Coyet explained that no embassy had arrived to express gratitude as the previous chief factor, Elserack, had not made an appropriate report.  Coyet added that there were now insufficient goods in Batavia for this kind of embassy, and so they had written to the Netherlands with the result that an embassy would be dispatched next year.  In reference to the gunners that had previously been requested by the Japanese, he reported that two men had died in the battle at Manila and that there were no appropriate replacements in Batavia at this time.

The Governor-General had entrusted Koe with a letter addressed to the machi-doshiyori (burgemeesters) of Nagasaki.  The Dutch translation of this text is included in Appendix 2.  The letter concerned Verstegen, the chief factor of the preceding year, who had attempted to collect old loans owed to his wife’s father, Melchior van Santvoort, a free merchant and one of the original crew members of the Liefde that arrived in Japan in 1600.  

On 20 September, the interpreters informed the Dutch that they would be asked again about the questions that had been put to them in Edo (p.56).  The interpreters also suggested that they would be interrogated concerning the capture of junks en route to Japan. They advised the Dutch to discuss these issues and to prepare explanatory letters prior to their appearance before the ômetsuke and the bugyô.  According to the interpreters, ômetsuke Inoue was held in suspicion in Edo because of his enthusiastic defense of the Dutch, and his right to attend at the castle was suspended for 40 days.  

The deadline for the last departure of the ships was set for the 20th day of the 9th month, on the Japanese calendar or 5 November, 1648.  The very next day, a messenger at last arrived from Edo.  The old and new chief factors were called to the residence of the bugyô where they were given the following notice (pp.68-71): “With regard to the matter of the assistance given to the Portuguese, both chief factors have declared that no assistance was given.  If after this it becomes clear that as the Portuguese maintained assistance was indeed given, then all Dutch trade with Japan will be prohibited, and you will be severely punished. Both chief factors should confirm this and again sign the documents.” The ômetsuke Inoue advised the Dutch that they should no longer have any interaction with the Portuguese because the shogun so despised the Portuguese that such behavior was distasteful to him.  He also warned the Dutch to make sure not to bring any Christians to Japan and ordered that an oath to this effect be submitted.  This was duly done on the 8th (p.73).  Because of this oath, trade was allowed to continue as before.  Inoue added that the new chief factor would be instructed at a later point about his visit to the court.  

The Diary of Dirck Snoek

Dirck Snoek came to the East Indies in 1641 as an opperkoopman.  In 1645, he became a member of the Raad van Justitie and was later appointed chief factor in Japan.  He arrived in Japan aboard the Patiëntia on 18 September, 1648.

The Refusal of Permission to Visit the Court and Events in Nagasaki
On December 16, the last ship of the year departed with Coyet aboard.  Snoek waited for instructions from the Japanese side regarding his visit to the court.   As New Year’s Day on the Japanese calendar had passed, he visited the residence of the bugyô Baba Toshishige and asked why the visit to the court was postponed.  The bugyô replied that matters related to the Dutch were being considered in Edo (pp.119-120). On 1 April, the interpreters reported that the bugyô would not give permission for the Dutch to visit the court, but they also added that the Dutch should be more patient.  On 20 May, a communication arrived from Edo, stating that no visit to the court would be permitted until Snoek and Coyet’s testimony concerning assistance given to the Portuguese embassy could be reconfirmed by the new chief factor (p.137). 

The Arrival of Dutch Ships, Trade and the Arrival of the Embassy 

This year the following seven Dutch ships arrived in Nagasaki.

Maasland(fluyt), arrived 07/08/1649 from Taiwan	
Gekroonde Liefde(fluyt), arrived 23/08/1649 from Batavia via Siam	
Griffioen(yacht), arrived 25/08/1649 from Batavia via Siam	
Kampen(fluyt), arrived 08/09/1649 from Tonkin	
Witte Paard(fluyt), arrived 13/09/1649 from Siam	
Witte Valk(fluyt), arrived 16/09/1649 from Tonkin via Taiwan	
Robijn(yacht), arrived 19/09/1649	from Batavia

The first to arrive was Maasland.  Broeckhorst, Snoek’s successor as chief factor, arrived from Tonkin via Taiwan, and conveyed news that an ambassador would come and that the Treaty of Westphalia had been signed in Europe.  The interpreters asked questions about the news that the long enmity between the Netherlands and Spain was over.  Snoek explained that the Spanish had been forced to seek peace because of the military strength displayed by the Netherlands over the long war.  He made it clear that it had been the Spanish and not the Dutch who had sought peace (pp.161-162).  As a result of his explanation, this matter did not become a further problem.  

On 19 September, the Robijn, which carried the ambassador, at last arrived.  The ambassador Petrus Blockhovius had died en route on 15 August, and the deputy ambassador, Andries Frisius, had assumed the position.  In addition, detailed instructions addressed to Snoek were delivered (Appendix IV).  A mortar instructor, who had been requested by the bakufu for a number of years, was also aboard the Robijn.  The ambassador was permitted to land, and notice was sent to Edo of his arrival.  The Dutch requested that as the Robijn was a diplomatic vessel, its weapons and rudder should not be removed in accordance with international protocol.  The request was refused and only the cannon balls were left in the vessel.

On 4 November, Snoek went for a final meeting at the bugyô’s residence.  By 5 November nothing had been heard concerning the future treatment of the ambassador, and authority was transferred to Broeckhorst.  The ambassadorial party and the Robijn remained behind while the Witte Paard departed from Japan. 

Basic Texts for the Transcription

The original manuscript texts for this transcription are preserved at the Nationaal Archief (reorganized from the Algemeen Rijksarchief in 2002) in The Hague, the Netherlands.  They are found in both the Archief Nederlandse Factorij Japan (NFJ) and the Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC) Archief, although these were all previously classified under one section, the Koloniaal Archief (KA).  The NFJ and some related VOC documents are now partly available on microfilm at the Historiographical Institute.  The present edition has been prepared on the basis of this film collection.  
The basic text used for the transcription in this volume is the following manuscript:

Daghregister des Comp[toir] Nagasacky ’ t sedert 3e November Ao. 1647 tot 8en December 1648.   (NFJ61, KA11687)  
Daghregister des Comptoirs Nagasacky zedert 9 December ao. 1648 tot 5en December Ao.1649 &1650.  (NFJ62, KA11687) 


A letter addressed to Frederik Coyet dated July 14, 1648. 
A letter addressed to the Burgermeesters van Nagasaki (Mayors of Nagasaki) dated 14 July, 1648. 
The instructions (Instructie) drafted by Frederik Coyet for Dirk Snoek, dated 6 December, 1648. 
A letter addressed to Dirk Snoek, dated 27 July, 1649.
3 November 1647 -  5 November 1649 (Volume Eleven)