THE HISTORIOGRAPHICAL INSTITUTE THE UNIVERSITY OF TOKYO
147. COMPOSITION OF THE BESIEGING ARMY AT MINA-MATA,
(Copies in SK, 2nd series, VIII.)
THE crushing defeat sustained in Hiuga by the Otomo tended to cripple their power even in cen-
tral Kyu-shu outside of Bungo. Lesser lords in Higo began to court the Shimadzu's favor, and the
latter were induced, already in 1579, to maintain a garrison of their men at Kumamoto. It was not
long before pieces of territory were, through either alliance or conquest, annexed in Higo. The Iriki
warriors participated in some of those campaigns in 1580.1 The siege of Mina-mata, just beyond
the boundary line between Satsuma and Higo, in September 1581, of which the following document
reveals the organization, was intended to secure for the Shimadzu an uninterrupted communication
between Kumamoto and their dominion in the south. The defender of the fortress, Sagara Yoshiaki,
the baron at Hitoyoshi, surrendered almost without resistance before the overwhelming hosts of
the besiegers, on 17 September.2 With a little subsequent maneuvering, a great part of the kuni of
Higo, fell within the Shimadzu's growing sphere of influence.
There are in SK two copies of the record of the composition of the campaign of Mina-mata,
of which one bears notes in red taken from other copies of the same material. The following version
is the result of a collation made by the editor of all the variants.
"In Ten-sho 9th year, kanoe tatsu,3 , since Sagara Yoshiaki, head of the Mina-mata
fortress in Ashikita kori, Higo, does not pay homage4 [to Shimadzu Yoshihisa], forces of the
three kuni, Satsuma, Osumi, and Hiuga, have been raised, and, on 8 m. 19 d. [16 September],
camps have been pitched at three places and intervening fences built, and the more than 700
[men of the enemy raised] from Kuma and Yatsu-shiro, [Higo], are besieged.
"THE first and foremost encampment, [at a place] called Kasa-no-jin or
"The commanders:6 Shimadzu Naka-tsukasa tai-yu Iehisa,7 of Sadowara, [with] 4
Shimadzu U-ma no kami Yukihisa,10 of Kiyo-midzu, [with] 5 private cap-
Adjutants:11 Kabayama Hyo-bu tai-yu Norihisa, of Mukasa, [with] 2 private captains;
Niiro Omi no kami12 Takehisa, of Ton-da, [with] 1 private captain;
Yoshitoshi Shimo-osa no kami Tadazumi, of Shio-mi, [with] 2 private
Tanegashima Sa-kon no dai-bu Tokitaka,13 [with] 3 private captains;
Togo Gen-shichi-ro Shigetora, [with] 1 private captain;
Iriki-in Dan-zho no chu Shigetoyo, [with] 4 private captains;
Hishigari Tomo-emon, of Hon-zho, [with] 1 private captain.
The lord's official,14 Izhuin Mikawa no kami Tada-akira.
"The ji-to15 of the to-zho,15 together with the zhu-chu:15-
Izhuin Shimotsuke no kami Hisaharu, the ji-to of Kushima;
Uehara Nagato no kami, the ji-to of Obi;
Izhuin Mimasaka no kami Hisanobu, of Kiyotake;16
Narahara Kano no suke, of Sakaya;
Otera Oi no suke, of Tano;
Nomura Bitchu no kami, of Uchiyama;
Yoshitoshi Yamashiro no kami, of Kuraoka;
Niiro Musashi no kami Tadamoto, of O-guchi;
Niiro Nui no suke Hisatoki, of Aya;
Sagara Shin-suke, of Yatsu-shiro;
Hirata Kano no suke So-O, of Kinowaki;
Ichiku Mimasaka no kimi, of Nozhiri;
Izhiri Iga no kami, of Hijiya;
Nomura Kaga no kami Shigetsuma, of Shirasu-zaki;
Ijichi Tango no kami, of Kadokawa;
Mera Uma no zho, of Kamiya;
Saruwatari Kamon no suke Nobumitsu, of Ha-tsuki;
Ijichi Min-bu sho-yu Shigeyasu, of Hira-idzumi;
Umekita Ku-nai saemon Kunikane, of Yunowo;
Fukunaga Tango no kami, of Ura-no-myo;
Kamada Nagato no kami, of Tarumidzu;
Niiro Ji-bu sho-yu Tadanobu, of Sogi.
"In all, 22 captains,9 and 21 immediate17 to-zho, besides zhu-chu all private.8
Total, 53 captains.
"Total, 31,000 men, of whom ji-to of the to-zho and private-rear18 ji-to are
"The second [encampment] at Kuma-no-mure, Zenikame-ga-o, and Hakkei-
"The commanders:6 Shimadzu Hyo-go no kami Tadahira,20 of Massaki, [with] 10
Shimadzu Bun-go no kami Tomohisa, of Hira-matsu, [with] 2 private cap-
Adjutants:11 Hongo Sanuki no kami Tadatora, of Sho-nai, [with] 12 private captains;
Ei Sa-ma no kami Hisatora, [with] 2 private captains;
Ono Suruga no kami Tadamune, of Yamada, [with] 1 private captain;
Kajiki Dan-zho no chu Kanehiro, [with] 6 private captains;
Shikine To-emon Yorimoto, [with] 1 private captain.
The lord's official,14 Iwakiri Mikawa no kami Nobuakira.
"The ji-to15 of the to-zho:15-
Uwai Ise no kami Akikane, the ji-to of Miyazaki, Hiuga;
Kamada Idzumo no kami Masachika, the ji-to of To-no-kori;
Hishizhima Shiki-bu tai-yu Yoshitomo, of Soi;
Yamada Shin-suke Arinobu, Taka-zho, of Hiuga;
Niiro Kageyu Tadamune, of Tsuneyoshi;
Kamada Chikugo no kami Masamune, of Takarabe;
Hirada Shin-zaemon Muneharu, of Hokita;
Kamada Owari no kami Masatoshi, of Ushine;
Ichiku Ko-shiro Iechika, of Matsuyama;
Miyabara Sa-kon sho-gen Kagetoki, of Kushikino.
"In all, 10 ji-to of immediate17 to-zho, with shu-chu.15
"The ji-to of the private8 to-zho of Hyo-go no kami dono:-
Arikawa Uta no kami, of Iino;
Uwai Zhiro-zaemon Satokane, of Kobayashi;
Kawakami Mikawa no kami Tadatomo, of Kurino;
Godai Ukyo no suke Tomohisa, of Makwanda;
Ito Saemon no suke, of Magoshi;
Shirasaka Mino no kami Kaneyori, of Yoshida;
Nango Wakasa no kami Tadaakira, of Kakuto;
Mera Suruga no kami;
Murao Uemon hyo-e, of Suki;
Sogi Yetchu no kami, deputy ji-to of Yoshimatsu;
"The private8 ji-to of Hongo21 dono:-
Kosugi Tango no kami; Hongo Mata-zhiro, of Taki;
Hongo Ki-zaemon, of Miyako-no-zho; Hongo Mikawa no kami, of Kajiyama;
Hongo Kurando Hisayoshi, of Shiwachi; Hongo Kamon no suke, of Takarabe;22
Hongo Uemon kyo-e, of Yamada; Hongo Uta, of Yasunaga;
Hongo Dewa no kami, of Nonomiya; Hongo Oi no suke, of Katsuoka;
Hongo Kyu-zaemon, of Sueyoshi; Shiwachi Gyo-bu sho-yu Tadatsuna, of
"The private ji-to of Kajiki dono:-
Kimotsuki Bizen, of San-de-do, of Odori, and Hinata-yama;
Kimotsuki Awaji, of Karekawa.
"The private ji-to of Ei dono:-
Tsumagari Kamon no suke, of Ibusuki.
"The private ji-to of Uma no kami dono:-
Machida Suwo no suke, of Shin-zho; Kawakami Chu-bei, of Kiyomidzu.
"Total, 31,000 men, of whom ji-to of the to-zho and private-rear18 ji-to are 51.
"The main encampments, at Katsu-idzumi-ga-oka,23 also called Idzumi,
Kawakami, and Hama-ga-hira.
"The tai-shu,24 lord Yoshihisa;
the commander,6 Shimadzu Saemon no kami Toshihisa,25 of Miya-no-zho;
the commander of the rear encampment, Sasshu Yoshitora, of Idzumi;
Adjutant,11 Shimadzu To-sho no kami Tadanaga, of Kushira;
Adjutant, Sada Hoki no kami Hisamasa;
Adjutant, Ijichi Nui no suke Shigesada, of Shimo-Osumi;
Adjutant, Nezhime Shichiro Shigeharu, of Nezhime;
The lord's official,14 Kawada Suruga no kami Yoshi-akira, of Kawada;
Elder,26 Kiire Shiki-bu tai-yu Hisamichi, the ji-to of Kiire;
Elder, Izhuin Uemon dai-bu Tadamune, the ji-to of Koyama;
Elder, Hirada Mino no kami Mitsumune, of Chosa;
Elder, Murauchi Yechizen no kami Tsunesada, of Kamo;
Elder, Machida Dewa no kami Tadanobu, of Izhuin;
Elder, Kawakami Sa-kon sho-gen Hisatoki, of Taniyama;
Elder, Honds Shimotsuke no kami Chikasada, of Yoshida;
The lord's messenger,27 Niiro Uemon no suke Yasutomo, of Osaki;
The lord's messenger,Yoshida Mimasaka no kami, of Ada;
The lord's messenger,Ijichi Hoki no kami, of Era;
The lord's messenger,Honda Inaba no kami, of Kaseda;
The lord's messenger,Hishizhima Ku-nai sho-yu Kunisada, of Ichiku:
The lord's messenger,Saisho Shin-suke, of So-no-kori;
The lord's messenger,Ijichi Bizen no kami, of Yamada of Sendai;
The lord's messenger,Kamada Gyo-bu saemon, of Shibushi.
Kawakami Kotsuke no suke Nobuhisa, of Imuta;
Katsura Taro-byoe Tada-akira, of Hirasa;
Kawakami Zhuro-zaemon Masuhisa, of Nagayoshi;
Yoshida Wakasa no kami, of Yamada of Chosa;
Ada Kamon no suke, of Kawanabe;
Takasaki Oi no suke, of Isaku;
Honda Higashi-ichi no kami, of Miyasato; (one copy has, Hirano Tamba no kami);
Sada Ku-nai sho-yu Tadamasu, of Momotsugi;
Niiro Yechigo no kami Takahisa, of Kuma-no-zho;
Samezhima So-getsu-sai, of Tafuse;
Nomura Ichi-emon Kiyotsuna, of Takae;
Shirahama Zhiro-zaemon, of Omura;
Mihara Shimo-osa no kami, of Hioki;
Murata Uta no suke, of Ichiku;
Hirano Tango no kami. of Kajiki;
Toya Shinano no kami, of Nagano;
Nomura Hyo-bu sho-yu, of Yamazaki;
(One copy has): Yoshitoshi Gyo-bu-saemon, of Mukasa.
"The lord's attendants,28 20 men:-
[in charge of] the lord's luggage,29 Ada Gen-shichi,
[in charge of] the lord's luggage, Izhuin Gen-roku,
[in charge of] the lord's luggage, Hirano Shin-zaemon,
[in charge of] the lord's luggage, Tashiro Zhin-suke;
Kiwaki San-zaemon; Nomura Min-bu sho-yu;
Yoshioka Ko-shiro; Iwakiri Uta no suke;
Mihara Hei-zaburo; Mihara Gen-roku;
Mihara Ukyo no suke; Higo Yo-saburo;
Samezhima Hei-zaburo; Keto-in Kyu-zhiro;
Hirada Sama no suke; Honda Emon no suke;
Honda Iya-goro; Murata Emon no suke;
Haseda Oribe no kami;30 Koreeda Zon-Riki bo.
"[In charge of] the lord's treasury,31 mounted 6 men:-
Kawakami Hiuga no kami; Ijichi Suruga no kami;
Kamada Kaga no kami; Minowa Tanba no kami;
Ijichi Ji-bu sho-yu; Tateyama Sanuki no kami.
"100 spears,32 with a footman33 between 10 spears; 2 spear commissioners;34
100 bows,32 ditto;
100 guns,32 ditto.
"In all, 300 bearers of weapons besied the lord, of whom 30 are substitutes.35
"3 war commissioners,36 with 30 men for each;
2 standard commissioners;37
3 ensigns,38 with 60 men;
4 commissioners for works,39 with 12 men;
2 commissioners for horses,40 with men.
"The lord's weapons,41 10; 60 foot soldiers;33
the lord's bows, 3, 3 men; the lord's quivers with utsubo arrows, 3, 6
the lord's nagi-nata,42 2, 3 men; the lord's hand-spears, 2, 3 men;
the lord's field swords, 2, 3 men; the lord's long swords, 2, 3 men;
the lord's short sword, 1, 3 men; 60 pages;43
2 bearers of the lord's kasa-44 holders; 3 bearers of the lord's kasa;
2 bearers of the lord's staffs: one mu-sha staff, one taka staff;45
12 bearers of the lord's vehicles;
3 chests of the lord's helmets and armors, 9 men;
the lord's horses, 3: 2 saddled, 1 plain;
3 bearers of the lord's sandals;
the lord's grooms, 15 men.
"The lord's personal guard,46 in all, 53,000 men, of whom 70 are captains.9
"570 armored men beside the lord; the Kagoshima zhu-chu15 are all private8 ji-to.
The ji-to15 of the to-zho,15 and ji-to and zhu-chu of private-rear to-zho18 are included.
"2 culinary officials,47 with 35 men: 3 dressers,48 6 ko-ban, 9 fire makers,49 2 rice
cooks,50 and 15 middlings, namely, 6 middlings attached to the stables, and 9 laborers
"This is the distribution of the 115,000 men of the entire army in the three
[Note in red]:-"The story of this campaign is as follows: the lord sent a message to Sagara
dono, by the two envoys, saying that, since it was inconvenient to send by sea guards to Utsu dono
and Zho dono [the lord's sllies at Kumamoto], he wished to make them take a direct route over-
land [through Sagara's territory] in their journey to Higo; and that, if [the latter] agreed to this,
he would henceforth be at peace with him. [Sagara] replied that that would never be permitted.
Accordingly, with a view to cutting through the land route and sending guards to Utsu dono and
Zho dono, first of all the lord pitched three camps at Mina-mata. Mina-mata was carried, and
Ashi-kita, Nana-ura, even Yatsu-shiro, were possessed [by the lord]. This was the first step of his
entry into Higo."
This document is accompanied by a letter dated 1830, signed by the councillors and record-
keepers of the Shimadzu lord and addressed to Narahara Suke-zaemon. According to this, the origi-
nal of this record, after having been borrowed from the Narahara family by the record office and
copied, had been damaged by rain; then a second copy was made from the first, and given to Suke-
zaemon with the letter, which certified the accuracy of the transcription.
1Iriki-in genealogy. 2Shimadzu koku-shi, xix, 1-4.
3The 17th of the cycle.
4Ki-ka ni iru, literally, to come under the standard.
5Northwest of the fortress of Mina-mata. 6Tai-sho.
7Yoshihisa's younger brother; see No. 145, n. 20.
8Uchi, private; literally, within. The term here refers to men supported in a fief held by a mesne
lord. The "private" men, therefore, were rear-vassals of the overlord. Uchi is contrasted with jiki,
immediate; see n. 17 below.
9Mono-gashira. 10Yoshihisa's cousin.
12In this record the reader will find that the title kami (civil governor) or the same kuni was
in several instances held by more than two men. When such was the case in the sphere of the
Shimadzu alone, one may readily see that in the whole of Japan there must have been in this period
many persons styled as kami of each single kuni. The title had become purely honorary, and was
granted by the imperial government, not only to warriors, but also to men talented in liberal arts.
This title, like many others orginally connected with the public official organization, was now on
the road to being assumed under feudal or even purely private sanction.
13Where the fief of a vassal is not, as in the preceding five cases, specifically mentioned, it may
be presumed that he carried the name of his fief or principal fiet as his family-name, and that,
therefore, he was still holding his original domain (hon-ryo), the place-name of which his ancestors
had adopted as their family-name; in the next three instances, for example, the fiefs of the respec-
tive vassals were Tanegashima, Togo, and Iriki-in. As for the fifth, Hishigari, the name Hon-zho
(literally, original fortress) meant the domain connected with the principal fortress of Hishigari.
14On yaku-sha; his official capacity is not stated. Probably he acted as the intermediary be-
tween the camp and the lord.
15These important terms are explained in Nos. 152 and 154. Work through the Index.
16The word ji-to is not repeated in the original, but understood hereafter.
17Jiki, "immediate," meant under direct control of the lord, as distinguished from mediate con-
trol. The latter, in the case of rear-vassals, was expressed by the word uchi, "within"; see n. 8.
18Mata(mediate, rear)-uchi(private). The meaning of this combination is the same as when uchi
alone is used; see n. 8.
19Respectively, north, northeast, and southeast, of the invested fortress.
20Yoshihisa's successor, later Yoshihiro.
21It will be seen how this vassal, who was a kinsman of the lord, used men of his own clan as
his private(uchi) ji-to.
22A careful student will discover several places where both immediate (n. 17) and private (n. 8)
vassals held fiefs. This indicates a significant point in the Shimadzu lord's policy of feudal control.
23Southwest of Mina-mate. 24Tai-shu means great shu-go.
25Yoshihisa's younger brother. 26Ro-chu.
27Tsukai shu. 28Go kin-zho shu.
29O ni-motsu shu.
30Haseba, it will be recalled (No. 145), drafted the lord's answer to Iriki-in's oath of fealty.
Haseba was the chief secretary of the lord's council.
32Evidently each weapon was borne by a warrior.
33Kachi shu. 34Yari bu-gyo.
35Te-gawari. 36Ikusa bu-gyo.
37Hata bu-gyo. 38Hata sashi.
39Fu-shin bu-gyo. 40Uma-ya bu-gyo.
42Nagi-nata, a weapon with a broad blade curved convexly and a long handle.
44Kasa, a shallow mushroom-shaped hat, with rim upturned at the sides.
45Staffs used, respectively, in war and in hawking.
46Hata-moto, literally, "under the standard." 47Dai-dokoro dai-kwan.